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      VOA英語學習網 > 科學美國人 > 2019年科學美國人 > 科學美國人60秒科學系列 >
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      科學美國人60秒: 古代屠夫使用石頭刀片

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      中英對照 聽力原文

      Early Butchers Used Small Stone Scalpels

      古代屠夫使用石頭刀片

      Archaeologists have spent a lot of time analyzing the flashiest objects recovered at ancient sites. But now they’re giving a second look at the waste and finding that it, too, tells tales about a culture. For example, 8,000-year-old poop recently revealed parasitic infections among people who lived in settlements versus their hunter-gatherer counterparts. And now archaeologists have examined another overlooked artifact—small stone flakes, typically thought to be by-products from the production of tools like hand axes and cleavers.

      考古學家花了很多時間分析在古代遺址中發現的”最耀眼”的物體。但現在他們重新審視了這種廢物,發現它也講述了一種文化的故事。例如,最近,有8000年歷史的糞便揭示,與以狩獵采集為生的糞便相比,居住在居民點的糞便感染了寄生蟲。現在考古學家們又研究了另一件被忽視的藝術品——小石片,通常被認為是手工斧和砍刀等工具生產的副產品。

      “It was not easy to convince the scientific community that there is value to studying these items, because they were regarded just as waste.”

      “要讓科學界相信研究這些項目是有價值的并不容易,因為這些物品被視為廢物。”

      \

      Ran Barkai, an archaeologist at Tel Aviv University. His team studied 283 stone flakes found in Israel, at a site inhabited by our Homo erectus relatives, half a million years ago.

      特拉維夫大學考古學家Ran Barkai說。他的團隊研究了在以色列發現的283塊石片,這些石片是在50萬年前直立人的近親居住的地方發現的。

      They found evidence of use—like small fractures—along the edges of the inch-long flakes. But they also discovered bits of bone and flesh still sticking to the tiny blades—flesh that could have come from elephants. The big mammals were much more widespread back then and were a prominent source of protein for early humans in that area.

      他們發現了一些證據,—些1英寸長的薄片邊緣存在著類似于人類使用過的小裂縫。但是他們也發現了一些骨頭和肉仍然粘在小刀片上——這些小肉可能來自大象。那時,大型哺乳動物的分布更為廣泛,同時也是該地區早期人類的重要蛋白質來源。

      The team then tested replicas of the flakes to butcher wild boars and deer and sheep. And they concluded that such tools would have been really useful to ancient hunters—for skinning hides, filleting meat and scraping every bit of nutrition out of an animal. Details and photos of the small scalpels are in the journal Scientific Reports.

      然后,研究小組對這些薄片的復制品進行了測試,以屠宰野豬、鹿和羊。他們得出的結論是,這些工具對古代獵人來說非常有用——剝去獸皮,切成片,從動物身上刮去所有的營養物質。這些小刀片的細節和照片發表在《科學報告》雜志上。

      Barkai also says the tiny flakes suggest these people were more sophisticated than they get credit for. “Walmarts were nonexistent at the time. So they had to do everything by themselves. And the fact that they survived and thrived for hundreds of thousands of years tells me they were highly capable, highly intelligent. I’m sure they were no less capable than us. And if not for their intelligence, we wouldn’t be here.”

      Barkai同時也表示,這些小刀片表明,古代人類比人們認為的要聰明。當時還沒有沃爾瑪。所以,所有的事情都得親力親為。人類存活并繁榮了幾十萬年的事實告訴我,古代人類非常能干,非常聰明。我肯定他們的能力不比我們差。如果沒有他們的智慧,我們就不會在這里。”

      Early Butchers Used Small Stone Scalpels

      Archaeologists have spent a lot of time analyzing the flashiest objects recovered at ancient sites. But now they’re giving a second look at the waste and finding that it, too, tells tales about a culture. For example, 8,000-year-old poop recently revealed parasitic infections among people who lived in settlements versus their hunter-gatherer counterparts. And now archaeologists have examined another overlooked artifact—small stone flakes, typically thought to be by-products from the production of tools like hand axes and cleavers.

      “It was not easy to convince the scientific community that there is value to studying these items, because they were regarded just as waste.”

      Ran Barkai, an archaeologist at Tel Aviv University. His team studied 283 stone flakes found in Israel, at a site inhabited by our Homo erectus relatives, half a million years ago.

      They found evidence of use—like small fractures—along the edges of the inch-long flakes. But they also discovered bits of bone and flesh still sticking to the tiny blades—flesh that could have come from elephants. The big mammals were much more widespread back then and were a prominent source of protein for early humans in that area.

      The team then tested replicas of the flakes to butcher wild boars and deer and sheep. And they concluded that such tools would have been really useful to ancient hunters—for skinning hides, filleting meat and scraping every bit of nutrition out of an animal. Details and photos of the small scalpels are in the journal Scientific Reports.

      Barkai also says the tiny flakes suggest these people were more sophisticated than they get credit for. “Walmarts were nonexistent at the time. So they had to do everything by themselves. And the fact that they survived and thrived for hundreds of thousands of years tells me they were highly capable, highly intelligent. I’m sure they were no less capable than us. And if not for their intelligence, we wouldn’t be here.”


      內容來自 VOA英語學習網http://www.tg377.com/show-8762-241831-1.html
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